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Security Council 135 Resolution
Developed by the United Nations Security Council, the UN Security Resolution 1325 served as the first formal and legal document that required parties in conflict to respect women’s right and enhance their participation in peace negotiations and post conflict reconstruction. It was adopted in October 2000 and constituted the most comprehensive resolution on women, peace and security. It affirms the full participation of women as decision-makers in the processes of promotion and maintenance of peace building efforts and conflict resolutions. For more information, visit the following link: www.un.org


The Geneva Convention (1949) and Additional Protocols (1977)

Humanitarian rules must always be observed even in war circumstances. The rules are laid out in the four Geneva Conventions produced in 1949 annexed by the 8 additional protocols of 1977. The guiding principle of the Geneva Convention comprises the preservation of respect and dignity of all individuals. Persons who are affected by war must be protected without any discrimination, in addition to those who are sick, injured, and held in captivity. The additional protocols extend the protection to any person affected by armed conflicts. Military operations must protect innocent civilians and take place under the premise of military operations. For further information, please visit the following link: http://www.ohchr.org

Convention for the Suppression of the traffic in Persons and the Exploitation of the Prostitution of Others (1951)
The convention constitutes of agreeing to “punish any person who, to gratify the passions of another: (1) procures, entices or leads away, for purposes of prostitution, another person, even with the consent of that person; (2) exploits the prostitution of another person, even with the consent of that person”. It declares the punishment of any person involved in any form in the financing of the brothel; in addition to punishing anyone who knowingly rents or allows a building or any premise for the act of prostitution of others. For more information, visit the following link: www.ohchr.org


Declaration on the Protection of Women and Children in Emergencies and Armed Conflicts (1974)

It protects the most vulnerable faction of the population, particularly, women and children from any attack and bombing. All forms of repressions are considered criminal acts. These include inhumane and gruesome acts against women and children, imprisonment, torture, shootings, mass arrests, collective punishment, destruction of dwellings and forcible evictions. For more information, visit the following link: www.ohchr.org


Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW) (1979)

CEDAW was first signed in 1978 and effectively ratified in 1981. It guarantees women equal rights with men in all spheres of life, including employment, education, health care, political empowerment, nationality and marriage. The Convention protects women from abuses, however, it does not protect them from rape, spousal abuse or other abuses suffered mainly by women. For more information, visit the following link: www.ohchr.org and www.unifem.org

Optional Protocol to CEDAW (1999)
The optional protocol to CEDAW empowers individuals to file complaints to the UN Committee for CEDAW and henceforth the Committee investigates the violation of human rights in the member states. For more information, visit the following link: www.ohchr.org and www.unifem.org

Convention on the Rights of the Child (1989)
The Convention was ratified in 1990 and it expands the right of child protection to adults using various legal instruments. It protects children against armed conflicts. In general, the Convention encompasses four guiding principles which are: (1) Non-discrimination, (2) best interests of the child; (3) the right to life, survival and development and (4) the views of the child. For further information on this convention, visit the following link: www.ohchr.org and www.unicef.org

The Vienna Declaration (1993)
The declaration entitles the elimination of all forms of gender-based violence. It recognizes the indispensable right of women, children and girls as part of the human rights. For more information, visit the following link: www.ohchr.org

Declaration on the Elimination of Violence against Women (1993)
It immensely asserts that violence against women is a happening phenomenon affecting all fractions of society disregarding class, culture, and standards of living. It emphasizes that violence against women engendered by private actors is a human rights violation. For more information, visit the following link: www.ohchr.org and www.un.org

Beijing Platform of Action (1995)
The Beijing Platform of Action is determined to advance the goals of women in terms of equality, development and peace. The Platform acknowledges the voices of all women and takes not of the diversity of women and their roles and circumstances. It focuses on protecting women against violence as one of its main strategic objectives as well as promoting the status of women in war affected countries. For more information, visit the following link: www.unifem.org and www.un.org

ILO Convention 100: Equal Remuneration (1951)
The C100 constitutes of promoting the principle of equal pay for work of equal value. It must be applied to all workers in accordance with the national rates of pay of the designated country. The C100 specifies “equal pay for work of equal value as a rate of pay fixed without discrimination based on sex”. For more information, visit the following link: www.ilo.org

ILO Convention 111: Discrimination (1958)
The C111 states the importance of developing a national policy to promote equal opportunity and treatment to end all forms of discrimination in employment and occupation. “Discrimination is defined as any distinction, exclusion or preference based on race, color, sex, religion, political opinion, national extraction or social origin that nullifies or impairs equality of opportunity or treatment in employment or occupation. For more information, visit the following link; www.ilo.org.

Convention of Political Rights of Women (1952)
The most fundamental objective of this Convention is the implementation of a principle of gender parity where men and women can fully exercise their rights in political participation and representation. The Convention produced several principles that promote women equality with men and enable them to, without any form of discrimination, to vote in all elections, fully participation and take part in public elections established by national law, and hold public office and exercise all public functions that are established by national law. For more information, visit the following link: www.ohchr.org

Convention against Discrimination in Education (1960)
This Convention was adopted by the general Assembly of UNESCO. It enables the equal educational opportunities for girls and women. Not all does this Convention end discrimination in the educational system but it also promote equality of opportunity and treatment in education. For more information, visit the following link: www.unesco.org